【托福Toefl實用英文學習】正確使用使役動詞:have, make, let, get

 

所謂「使役」,就是叫人家去做事情,以「我去剪頭髮」為例,中文直翻英文為 I cut my hair. 老外可能會覺得你很厲害,"自己"剪頭髮。但這句其實是 I have my hair cut. "請別人"幫你剪頭髮。所以究竟要如何正確使用使役動詞?請大家繼續往下看!


托福實力充電站:


句型:主詞 + have +受詞+ 過去分詞


修車

I repaired my car. 我(自己)修了車。

I had my car repaired. 我(付費)請人幫我修車。


洗車

The car was washed. 我(自己)洗了車。

I had the car washed. 我(付費)請人洗車。


檢查眼睛

I tested my eyes. 我(自己)檢測了眼睛。

I had my eyes tested. 我(付費)請人檢測眼睛。


清洗衣服

I cleaned my coat. 我(自己)洗了我的大衣。

I had my coat cleaned. 我(付費)請人清洗大衣。


洗照片

I developed my photos. 我(自己)洗了照片。

I had my photos developed. 我(付費)請人沖洗照片


這樣的句法,無論時態、疑問還是直述,都適用:


未來式:


我要去修手錶

(X)I am going to fix my watch.

(O)I am going to have my watch fixed.


疑問句:


你去哪剪頭髮的?

(X)Where did you cut your hair?

(O)Where did you have your hair cut?


我可以去哪剪頭髮?

(X)Where can I cut my hair?

(O)Where can I have my hair cut?


make/have/get/let 「讓」得恰到好處


如果仔細去揣摩中文的「讓」字,它包含很多隱晦的意思,英文在字面上就區分得較為清楚,我們就用make跟have一組,get與let一組來比較看看。


make 態度強硬


The teacher knows how to make his students study.

老師知道怎麼讓學生讀書。(不管用任何方法)


have 態度和緩


The teacher had me clean the blackboard.

老師請我清黑板。


get 強調主因


His individualism got him fired.

他的個人主義讓他被炒魷魚了。


let 強調意願(允許、容忍)


The teacher won't let us talk in class.

老師不讓(允許)我們在課堂講話。




Photo from Pixabay