1. According to paragraph 3 ,Xhas which of the following consequences for Y?
2. According to paragraph 1,which of the following is true of X of Y?
3. According to paragraph 2,which of the following led to the appearance of X?
4. According to the passage,what is true of ____?
5. Paragraph 2 supports whichof the following ideas about X?
6. According to thepassage,X________?
• 閱讀題干，在題干中找 key words .
• 利用 key words 回原文中定位 key sentence.
• 回選項中找 key sentence 的同意轉述句即為答案。
TPO2-2 Paragraph 3: Even in the areas that retain a soil cover, thereduction of vegetation typicallyresults in the loss of the soil's ability toabsorb substantial quantities of water. The impact ofraindrops on the loosesoil tends to transfer fine clay particles into the tiniest soil spaces,sealingthem and producing a surface that allows very little water penetration.Water absorption isgreatly reduced; consequently runoff is increased,resulting in accelerated erosion rates. Thegradual drying of the soil causedby its diminished ability to absorb water results in the further loss ofvegetation, so that a cycle of progressive surface deterioration isestablished.
According to paragraph 3, the loss of natural vegetation has which ofthe following consequences for soil?
A. Increased stony content
B. Reduced water absorption
C. Increased numbers of spaces in the soil
D. Reduced water runoff
解析：首先，判斷題干種包含有效定位細節信息，因此選取關鍵詞 the loss of naturalvegetation
回原文定位。得到關鍵句為「Even in the areas that retain asoil cover, the reduction of vegetation typically results in the loss of thesoil’s ability to absorb substantial quantities of water. 」句中的 the reduction of vegetation 即為關鍵詞的同意轉述。然後，翻譯關鍵句：即使在有土壤覆蓋的區域，植被的減少仍導致了土壤吸水能力的降低。再結合題干：植被的減少對土壤由什麼樣的後果?所以，B 選項正確。其中 Reducedwater absorption 是 loss of the soil’s ability to absorbsubstantial quantities of water 的同義改寫。
TPO4-1 Paragraph 4: Reduction in numbers of game should have boded illfor their survival in later times. A worsening of the plight of deer was to beexpected as settlers encroached on the land,logging, burning, and clearing,eventually replacing a wilderness landscape with roads, cities,towns, andfactories. No doubt the numbers of deer declined still further. Recall the fateof the Columbian white-tailed deer, now in a protected status. But for theblack-tailed deer, human pressure has had just the opposite effect. Wildlifezoologist Helmut Buechner(1953), in reviewing the nature of biotic changes inWashington through recorded time, says that "since the early 1940s, thestate has had more deer than at any other time in its history, the winterpopulation
fluctuating around approximately 320,000 deer (mule and black-taileddeer), which will yield about 65,000 of either sex and any age annually for anindefinite period."
9. Which of the following statements about deer populations is supportedby the information in paragraph 4?
A. Deer populations reached their highest point during the 1940s and thenbegan to decline.
B. The activities of settlers contributed in unexpected ways to thegrowth of some deer
populations in later times.
C. The cleaning of wilderness land for construction caused biotic changesfrom which the
black-tailed deer population has never recovered.
D. Since the 1940s the winter populations of deer have fluctuated morethan the summer populations have.
解析：首先，閱讀題干， 關鍵詞 deer population 屬於文章 topic，無法在原文中有效的定位。
根據原文，對於選項信息進行比對，排除錯誤選項，篩選出正確答案為 B,The activities of settlers contributed in unexpected ways to the growth of some deer populationsin later times.
人類活動對陸群數量的影響是難以預料的，原文先陳述人類活動使陸群數量降低並舉例進行支持;後續內容中轉折 but 出現，表示下文與前文內容是形成轉折關係的，即對於 black-tailed deer 人類活動起了反作用。因此 B 選項為原文概括總結型同意轉述。
Photo by Aaron Burden on Unsplash